On the Opportunities and Risks of Foundation Models

Rishi Bommasani, Drew A. Hudson, Ehsan Adeli, Russ Altman, Simran Arora, Sydney Arx, Michael S. Bernstein, Jeannette Bohg, Antoine Bosselut, Emma Brunskill, Erik Brynjolfsson, Shyamal Buch, Dallas Card, Rodrigo Castellon, Niladri Chatterji, Annie Chen, Kathleen Creel, Jared Quincy Davis, Dora Demszky, Chris Donahue, Moussa Doumbouya, Esin Durmus, Stefano Ermon, John Etchemendy, Kawin Ethayarajh, Li Fei-Fei, Chelsea Finn, Trevor Gale, Lauren Gillespie, Karan Goel, Noah Goodman, Shelby Grossman, Neel Guha, Tatsunori Hashimoto, Peter Henderson, John Hewitt, Daniel E. Ho, Jenny Hong, Kyle Hsu, Jing Huang, Thomas Icard, Saahil Jain, Dan Jurafsky, Pratyusha Kalluri, Siddharth Karamcheti, Geoff Keeling, Fereshte Khani, Omar Khattab, Pang Wei Koh, Mark Krass, Ranjay Krishna, Rohith Kuditipudi, Ananya Kumar, Faisal Ladhak, Mina Lee, Tony Lee, Jure Leskovec, Isabelle Levent, Xiang Lisa Li, Xuechen Li, Tengyu Ma, Ali Malik, Christopher D. Manning, Suvir Mirchandani, Eric Mitchell, Zanele Munyikwa, Suraj Nair, Avanika Narayan, Deepak Narayanan, Ben Newman, Allen Nie, Juan Carlos Niebles, Hamed Nilforoshan, Julian Nyarko, Giray Ogut, Laurel Orr, Isabel Papadimitriou, Joon Sung Park, Chris Piech, Eva Portelance, Christopher Potts, Aditi Raghunathan, Rob Reich, Hongyu Ren, Frieda Rong, Yusuf Roohani, Camilo Ruiz, Jack Ryan, Christopher Ré, Dorsa Sadigh, Shiori Sagawa, Keshav Santhanam, Andy Shih, Krishnan Srinivasan, Alex Tamkin, Rohan Taori, Armin W. Thomas, Florian Tramèr, Rose E. Wang, William Wang, Bohan Wu, Jiajun Wu, Yuhuai Wu, Sang Michael Xie, Michihiro Yasunaga, Jiaxuan You, Matei Zaharia, Michael Zhang, Tianyi Zhang, Xikun Zhang, Yuhui Zhang, Lucia Zheng, Kaitlyn Zhou, and Percy Liang


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Abstract

AI is undergoing a paradigm shift with the rise of models (e.g., BERT, DALL-E, GPT-3) that are trained on broad data at scale and are adaptable to a wide range of downstream tasks. We call these models foundation models to underscore their critically central yet incomplete character. This report provides a thorough account of the opportunities and risks of foundation models, ranging from their capabilities (e.g., language, vision, robotics, reasoning, human interaction) and technical principles (e.g., model architectures, training procedures, data, systems, security, evaluation, theory) to their applications (e.g., law, healthcare, education) and societal impact (e.g., inequity, misuse, economic and environmental impact, legal and ethical considerations). Though foundation models are based on conventional deep learning and transfer learning, their scale results in new emergent capabilities, and their effectiveness across so many tasks incentivizes homogenization. Homogenization provides powerful leverage but demands caution, as the defects of the foundation model are inherited by all the adapted models downstream. Despite the impending widespread deployment of foundation models, we currently lack a clear understanding of how they work, when they fail, and what they are even capable of due to their emergent properties. To tackle these questions, we believe much of the critical research on foundation models will require deep interdisciplinary collaboration commensurate with their fundamentally sociotechnical nature.


BibTeX
@misc{BHAA+21,
  author   =   {Bommasani, Rishi and Hudson, Drew A. and Adeli, Ehsan and Altman, Russ and Arora, Simran and von Arx, Sydney and Bernstein, Michael S. and Bohg, Jeannette and Bosselut, Antoine and Brunskill, Emma and Brynjolfsson, Erik and Buch, Shyamal and Card, Dallas and Castellon, Rodrigo and Chatterji, Niladri and Chen, Annie and Creel, Kathleen and Davis, Jared Quincy and Demszky, Dora and Donahue, Chris and Doumbouya, Moussa and Durmus, Esin and Ermon, Stefano and Etchemendy, John and Ethayarajh, Kawin and Fei-Fei, Li and Finn, Chelsea and Gale, Trevor and Gillespie, Lauren and Goel, Karan and Goodman, Noah and Grossman, Shelby and Guha, Neel and Hashimoto, Tatsunori and Henderson, Peter and Hewitt, John and Ho, Daniel E. and Hong, Jenny and Hsu, Kyle and Huang, Jing and Icard, Thomas and Jain, Saahil and Jurafsky, Dan and Kalluri, Pratyusha and Karamcheti, Siddharth and Keeling, Geoff and Khani, Fereshte and Khattab, Omar and Koh, Pang Wei and Krass, Mark and Krishna, Ranjay and Kuditipudi, Rohith and Kumar, Ananya and Ladhak, Faisal and Lee, Mina and Lee, Tony and Leskovec, Jure and Levent, Isabelle and Li, Xiang Lisa and Li, Xuechen and Ma, Tengyu and Malik, Ali and Manning, Christopher D. and Mirchandani, Suvir and Mitchell, Eric and Munyikwa, Zanele and Nair, Suraj and Narayan, Avanika and Narayanan, Deepak and Newman, Ben and Nie, Allen and Niebles, Juan Carlos and Nilforoshan, Hamed and Nyarko, Julian and Ogut, Giray and Orr, Laurel and Papadimitriou, Isabel and Park, Joon Sung and Piech, Chris and Portelance, Eva and Potts, Christopher and Raghunathan, Aditi and Reich, Rob and Ren, Hongyu and Rong, Frieda and Roohani, Yusuf and Ruiz, Camilo and Ryan, Jack and R{\'e}, Christopher and Sadigh, Dorsa and Sagawa, Shiori and Santhanam, Keshav and Shih, Andy and Srinivasan, Krishnan and Tamkin, Alex and Taori, Rohan and Thomas, Armin W. and Tram{\`e}r, Florian and Wang, Rose E. and Wang, William and Wu, Bohan and Wu, Jiajun and Wu, Yuhuai and Xie, Sang Michael and Yasunaga, Michihiro and You, Jiaxuan and Zaharia, Matei and Zhang, Michael and Zhang, Tianyi and Zhang, Xikun and Zhang, Yuhui and Zheng, Lucia and Zhou, Kaitlyn and Liang, Percy},
  title   =   {On the Opportunities and Risks of Foundation Models},
  year   =   {2021},
  howpublished   =   {arXiv preprint arXiv:2108.07258},
  url   =   {https://arxiv.org/abs/2108.07258}
}